Folate Metabolism Genetic Polymorphisms and the Susceptibility to Parkinson Disease
Keywords:Methionine synthase, 5,10-methyleneTHF reductase, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Parkinson disease, homocysteine
As life expectancy increases over time, the incidence of neurological diseases has increased and it is important to conduct clinical and scientific studies on these issues, as they impair quality of life and cause an additional burden on the health expenditures of countries. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder. Multiple studies have been carried out to elucidate its pathogenesis. It is thought that environmental and genetic factors, enzymes and amino acids in folate metabolism, and enzymatic transformations between vitamins contribute to the development of PD in varying degrees. The levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and vit B 12 levels, and key enzymes on folate metabolism (Methionine synthase reductase MTRR, Methionine synthase; MTR, 5,10-methyleneTHF reductase; MTHFR) may have impact on the development of PD, especially, changes on enzyme activities due to genetic polymorphism. The results obtained from studies on this subject are controversial. In the present review, the impacts of polymorphic enzymes in folate metabolism, and Hcy and B12 vit on the development of PD was evaluated by reviewing recent studies.