Evaluating the Effect of Prebiotics in the Rehabilitation of Gut Microbiota After Antibiotic Therapy in Rats

  • Rabia Omer Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
  • Sanaullah Iqbal Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
  • Bilal Sajid Mushtaq National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • Muhammad Bilal Hussain Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Mustafa Nadhim Owaid University of Anbar, Department of Ecology, College of Applied Sciences, Iraq
  • Farhan Saeed Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Marwa Waheed Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad
  • Mohammad Ali Shariati Associate Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Biocontrol and Antimicrobial Resistance, Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev
  • Muhammad Usman Khan Department of Energy Systems Engineering, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • Toheed Ahmad Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effect of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment given two times a day. Four groups were made having six rats in each group. G1 was a control group fed on a basal diet. While, the remaining were treated in groups given antibiotic and GOS separately and also in combination as in G2. The dose of antibiotic and GOS was calculated by HED (Human Equivalent Dose) formula. Fecal samples were analyzed at the interval of five days for bacterial population especially Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Escherichia coli and total plate count was achieved using selective media. The results indicated that the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. depended on GOS and antibiotic dose. The combination of GOS-Cephalexin is mostly of interest because due to the antibiotic. The results of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were decreased while on GOS consumption, the growth of such species is increased. The results of G3 showed that the number of colonies of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was significantly higher than G2 on the 5th day. Furthermore, the recovery rate was faster as compared to other groups. This research suggested that intake of GOS during antibiotic treatment significantly strengthen the microbiota by increasing the population of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. as well as reducing the number of E. coli that shows resistance to many antibiotics.

References

Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LCM, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2010, 90(3): 859-904.

DuPont H. Review article: the antimicrobial effects of rifaximin on the gut microbiota. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016; 43(S1): 3-10.

Rastall R Bacteria in the gut: friends and foes and how to alter the balance. J Nutr. 2004; 134(8): 2022-6.

Hopkins M, Sharp R, Macfarlane G. Age and disease related changes in intestinal bacterial populations assessed by cell culture, 16S rRNA abundance, and community cellular fatty acid profiles. Gut. 2001; 48(2): 198-205.

Zoetendal EG, Akkermans AD, Akkermans-van Vliet WM, de Visser JAG, de Vos WM. The host genotype affects the bacterial community in the human gastronintestinal tract. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2001; 13(3): 129-34.

Grande-Bretagne. Antimicrobial resistance: tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2014.

Stefka AT, Feehley T, Tripathi P, Qiu J, McCoy K, Mazmanian SK, Tjota MY, Seo G-Y, Cao S, Theriault BR. Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014; 111(36): 13145-50.

McFarland LV 2008. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea: epidemiology, trends and treatment.

Shevchuk YM, Pharm D, Conly JM. Antibiotic-associated hypoprothrombinemia. Infect Dis Rep. 1992; 11(6): 43-6.

Teo SM, Mok D, Pham K, Kusel M, Serralha M, Troy N, Holt BJ, Hales BJ, Walker ML, Hollams E. The infant nasopharyngeal microbiome impacts severity of lower respiratory infection and risk of asthma development. Cell host & microbe. 2015; 17(5): 704-15.

Macfarlane S, Macfarlane G, Cummings Jt. Review article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 24(5): 701-14.

Sako T, Matsumoto K, Tanaka R. Recent progress on research and applications of non-digestible galacto-oligosaccharides. Int Dairy J. 1999; 9 (1): 69-80.

Keeney KM, Finlay BB. Enteric pathogen exploitation of the microbiota-generated nutrient environment of the gut. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011; 14(1): 92-8.

Gibson G, McCartney A, Rastall R. Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections. Br J Nutr. 2005; 93(S1): 31-4.

Tuohy K, Rouzaud G, Bruck W, Gibson G. Modulation of the human gut microflora towards improved health using prebiotics-assessment of efficacy. Curr Pharm Des. 2005; 11(1): 75-90.

Wasilewski A, Zielinska M, Storr M, Fichna J. Beneficial effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and psychobiotics in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015; 21(7): 1674-82.

Ladirat SE, Schuren FH, Schoterman MH, Nauta A, Gruppen H, Schols HA. Impact of galacto-oligosaccharides on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity upon antibiotic treatment during in vitro fermentation. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2014; 87(1): 41-51.

Schillinger U, Lücke FK. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus sake isolated from meat. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989; 55(8): 1901-6.

Langdon A, Crook N, Dantas G. The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation. Genome Med. 2016; 8(1): 1.

Van der Waaij D, Berghuis-de Vries J, Lekkerkerk-Van der Wees J. Colonization resistance of the digestive tract in conventional and antibiotic-treated mice. J Hyg (Lond). 1971; 69(3): 405-11.

Panda S, Casellas F, Vivancos JL, Cors MG, Santiago A, Cuenca S, Guarner F, Manichanh C. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4): e95476.

Corvaglia L, Tonti G, Martini S, Aceti A, Mazzola G, Aloisio I, Di Gioia D, Faldella G. Influence of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus on gut microbiota in the first month of life. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016; 62(2): 304-8.

Newton DF, Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT. Effects of antibiotics on bacterial species composition and metabolic activities in chemostats containing defined populations of human gut microorganisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013; 57(5): 2016-25.

Gibson GR, Beatty ER, Wang X, Cummings JH. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1995; 108(4): 975-82.

Hopkins MJ, Macfarlane GT. Nondigestible oligosaccharides enhance bacterial colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile in vitro. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003; 69(4): 1920-7.

Brunser O, Gotteland M, Cruchet S, Figueroa G, Garrido D, Steenhout

P. Effect of a milk formula with prebiotics on the intestinal

microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment. Pediatr Res. 2006; 59(3): 451-6.

Scheppach W, Weiler F. The butyrate story: old wine in new bottles? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004; 7(5): 563-7.

Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Schmitt J, Tandoi L, Rizzardi S, Boehm G. Early dietary intervention with a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life. J Nutr. 2008; 138(6): 1091-5.

Shoaf K, Mulvey GL, Armstrong GD, Hutkins RW. Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides reduce adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to tissue culture cells. Infect Immun. 2006; 74(12): 6920-8.

Patel R, DuPont HL. New approaches for bacteriotherapy: prebiotics, new-generation probiotics, and synbiotics. Clin Infect Dis. 2015; 60(suppl_2): 108-21.

Published
2019-12-21
Section
Original Research