Indirect Heamagglutination as an Immunodiagnostic Technique for Cystic Echinococcosis in Iraqi Patients

  • Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy Department of pathology,College of Veterinary medicine,Diyala University,Iraq
  • Walaa Najm Abood
Keywords: Indirect haemagglutination, hydatidosis, age, gender

Abstract

Objective: The aim is to determine the effectiveness of indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) as diagnostic techniques for Cystic Echinococcosis in Iraqi and the possible correlation of age and gender in disease occurrence.Material and Methods:   IHA technique using sensitized sheep red blood cells coated with an Echinococcus granulosus antigen. A chi square, Pearson correlation used for analysis of categorical variables.Results: Patients presented with clinical manifestation of hydatidosis (202) selectively enrolled in this study. The mean age was 31.64±8.98 years. The minimum age was 18 years and the maximum age was 70 years. Males represent 50%, with the mean age of 33.50±7. 8 years. The rest of patients were females with a mean age  of 29.78±9. 6 years. Positive cases represent 19.3%, and the 80.7% were negative. The number of positive cases was higher among females (22.8%) compared with males (15.8%) with no significant difference (p= 0.212) or correlation between gender and IHA results (p = 0.214) .The majority of patients had a the rage of 24-30 years, 31-36 years and 18-23 years. Among males, a higher number of positive cases at 31-36 years followed by 24-30 years and 49-54 years. Among females, a higher number of positive cases with 24-30 years of age was followed by those with 37-42 years of age and 18-23 years of age.  There was a significant difference (p= 0.001) between age groups according to gender without a significant correlation between the age group and IHA results according to gender (p= 0.268).Conclusion: The IHA is considered as rapid, reliable and adequate technique that makes it possible to process a large number of samples simultaneously. It does not require highly trained technical personnel. Females appear to be more susceptible to CE than males especially in younger age groups.

Author Biography

Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy, Department of pathology,College of Veterinary medicine,Diyala University,Iraq
Department of pathology,College of Veterinary medicine,Diyala University,Iraq

References

Mohammed MO. The Human Seroprevalence of Echinococcus Granulosus in Sulaimani Governorate. the Iraqi postgraduate medical journal 2013; 12.

Benito Carmena A EE. The immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis infection. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2007; 13: 460-75.

Lett WS. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus equinus in Dogs and Epidemiology of Canine Echinococcosis in the UK University of Salford ,School of Environment and Life Sciences, 2013.

Daniel O. Griffina, Henry J. Donaghy, Edwards B. Management of serology negative human hepatic hydatidosis (caused byEchinococcus granulosus) in a young woman from Bangladesh in a resource-rich setting: A case report. ID Cases 2014; 1 17-21.

Diagnostics F. ECHINOCOCCOSIS FUMOUZE® available from http://www.anl.se/documents/catalogueFumouze2007-Anglais 2013.

Khalf MS, AlTaie LH, AlFaham MA. The Incidence Of Hydatid Cyst In Human In Baghdad Governorate. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS) 2014; 9: 11-4.

Gebremichael D, Feleke A, Tesfamaryam G, Awel H, Tsigab Y. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Hydatidosis in Pastoral Community with Relation to Public Health Risks in Ayssaita, Northeastern of Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria 2013; 11 272-9.

Dopchiz M.C., Albani C., Riva E., Elissondo M.C., Lavallén C.M., G. D. Epidemiology and approach treatment of humancystic echinococcosis: case series. Ibero-Latinoam Parasitol 2011; 70: 74-84.

Yu Rong Yang, Tao Sun, Zhengzhi Li, Jianzhong Zhang, Jing Teng, Xongzhou Liu, et al. Community surveys and risk factor analysis of human alveolar and cystic echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2006; 84.

Al-Ani AM, Khan FY, Elzouki A-N, Al Hajri M, Ibrahim W. Epidemiology of hydatid disease in Qatar: a hospital based study from 2000-2013. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2014; 3: 4.

Salama AA, Othman AA, Zayed HA. Cystic echinococcosis in the middle region of the Nile Delta, Egypt: Clinical and radiological characteristics. The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine 2014.

Wang Q, Huang Y, Huang L, Yu W, He W, Zhong B, et al. Review of risk factors for human echinococcosis prevalence on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China: a prospective for control options. Infectious diseases of poverty 2014; 3: 3.

Alghoury A, El-Hamshary E, Azazy A, Hussein E, Rayan HZ. Hydatid disease in Yemeni patients attending public and private hospitals in Sanaa city, Yemen. Oman medical journal 2010; 25: 88.

Al-Shibani L, Al-Eryani S, Azazy AA, Al-Mekhlafi AM. Cases of hydatidosis in patients referred to Governmental hospitals for cyst removal in Sanaa City, Republic of Yemen. Trop Biomed 2012; 29: 18-23.

Saida L, Nouraddin A. Epidemiological study of cystic echinococcosis in man and slaughtered Animals in Erbil province, Kurdistan Regional-Iraq. Tikrit Journal of Pure Science 2011; 16: 45-50.

Singh B, Singh G, Sharma R, Sharma J, Aulakh R, Gill J. Human hydatidosis: an under discussed occupational zoonosis in India. Helminthologia 2013; 50: 87-90.

Al-Shaibani I, Saad FA, Al-Mahdi H. Cystic echinococcosis in humans and animals at Dhamar and Taiz governorates, Yemen. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2015; 4: 596-609.

Published
2016-03-28
Section
Original Research