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Aim: This study aims to investigate the effect of Covid-19 infection in the first trimester of pregnancy on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Material-Method: The retrospective descriptive study was conducted by scanning the files of pregnant women who applied to the Obstetrics outpatient clinic of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Ankara Dr. Sami Ulus Gynecology, Child Health and Diseases E.A.H. between 11.03.2020, the pandemic start date, and 30.05.2022. The study group consisted of single pregnant women (n=150), aged 18-45 years, who did not have any additional disease, and who were not vaccinated against Covid-19, who had a 50 gr Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. The next single pregnant woman applying to the clinic, who did not have the Covid-19 infection, had a 50 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, was aged between 18-45 years, had no additional disease, and was not vaccinated against Covid-19, was enrolled in the study control group (n=150). The rates of gestational diabetes diagnosis of pregnant women in the study and control groups were compared.
Results: It was determined that 12 (8.0%) of 150 pregnant women in the study group and only 4 (2.7%) of 150 pregnant women in the control group were diagnosed with GDM, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.040). As a result of logistic regression analysis; it was determined that the diagnosis of Covid-19 was an important parameter affecting the risk of gestational diabetes (p<0.05), and the risk of gestational diabetes was found to be 3.174 times higher in those diagnosed with Covid-19 (OR=3.174).
Conclusion: It is obvious that stress caused by covid-19 infection in pregnant women, acute damage to pancreatic islets, and resulting hypercoagulability may increase GDM by disrupting glucose metabolism. Considering that GDM is a disease that brings not only perinatal risks but also long-term chronic metabolic complications, it is clear that special attention should be paid to vaccination and prevention measures to protect pregnant women from extra risk factors such as Covid-19 infection.