Increasing Factors of Depression Among School Children Aged 10-15 Years

  • Mariam Kawafha
Keywords: Depressive disorder syndrome, depression, factors, Jordan, school children


Objective: Major depressive disorder is an escalating problem in both developed and under developed countries. Similar to the adolescents, depressive symptoms have been diagnosed at an extensive level among school going children. The study is based around investigating the increasing factors of depression among school going children of Jordan.Methods: A sample of 1650 school going students from Amman has been considered, which was assessed on behalf of two instruments. The age group of 10-15 years was identified for recruiting students from five government and five private schools. The collected data was analyzed through SPSS version 20.Results: Findings of the study reflected that depression in childhood is strongly associated with ecological factors and psychiatric co-morbidities. Furthermore, the results revealed that age, gender, living arrangements, and domestic violence are also associated with childhood depression. The results further identified that the prevalence rate of depression is higher in girls as compared to the boys.Conclusion: Depression can become more severe, if it is not managed at the early stage. Similarly, depression in childhood is likely to continue in adulthood if it is not properly treated at initial stages. Moreover, the rate of depression vary across the globe due to the different social and economic factors of each country.


Brooks TL, Harris SK, Thrall JS, Woods ER. Association of adolescent risk behaviors with mental health symptoms in high school students. J Adolesc Health. 2002; 31: 240-6.

Birmaher B, Ryan ND, Williamson DE, Brent DA, Kaufman J, Dahl RE, Perel J, Nelson B. Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996; 35: 1427-39.

Nasir LS, Al-Qutob R. Barriers to the diagnosis and treatment of depression in Jordan. A nationwide qualitative study. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. 2005; 18: 125-31.

Dilsaver SC, Benazzi F, Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Post‐traumatic stress disorder among adolescents with bipolar disorder and its relationship to suicidality. Bipolar disorders. 2007; 9: 649-55.

Kessler RC, Demler O, Frank RG, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Walters EE, Wang P, Wells KB, Zaslavsky AM. Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders, 1990 to 2003. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005; 352: 2515-23.

Yehuda R. Post-traumatic stress disorder. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002; 346: 108-14.

Hirschfeld RM, Keller MB, Panico S, Arons BS, Barlow D, Davidoff F, Endicott J, Froom J, Goldstein M, Gorman JM, Guthrie D. The National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association consensus statement on the undertreatment of depression. JAMA. 1997; 277: 333-40.

Rushton JL, Forcier M, Schectman RM. Epidemiology of depressive symptoms in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002; 41: 199-205.

Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M. Exploring the association between cannabis use and depression. Addiction. 2003; 98: 1493-504.

Kovacs M, Goldston D, Obrosky DS, Bonar LK. Psychiatric disorders in youths with IDDM: rates and risk factors. Diabetes care. 1997;20:36-44.

Weissman MM, Wolk S, Goldstein RB, Moreau D, Adams P, Greenwald S, Klier CM, Ryan ND, Dahl RE, Wickramaratne P. Depressed adolescents grown up. JAMA. 1999; 281: 1707-13.

Shaffer D, Craft L. Methods of adolescent suicide prevention. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999.

Kovacs M, Goldston D, Obrosky DS, Bonar LK. Psychiatric disorders in youths with IDDM: rates and risk factors. Diabetes care. 1997; 20: 36-44.

Klomek AB, Marrocco F, Kleinman M, Schonfeld IS, Gould MS. Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. JAACAP. 2007; 46: 40-9.

Kaltiala-Heino R, Rimpelä M, Marttunen M, Rimpelä A, Rantanen P. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: school survey. Bmj. 1999; 319: 348-51.

Boulton MJ, Underwood K. Bully/victim problems among middle school children. Br J EducPsychol. 1992; 62: 73-87.

Original Research