Comparison of the Clinical and Radiological Features of COVID-19 and Other Viral Pneumonias
Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the differences between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral pneumonia (OVP) in terms of demographic, clinical and radiological features.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Gazi University Hospital between 11 March and 24 May 2020. Patients, admitted to the hospital with suspected COVID-19 infection aged >18 years and those who had pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) scan were evaluated. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and multiplex PCR, for other respiratory viruses, were performed. Patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR were included in “COVID-19 pneumonia” group and those who had a positive result for any other respiratory viruses and two consecutive negative results for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the “OVP” group. Two groups were compared in terms of clinical, laboratory and chest CT findings.
Results: Of the 63 patients included in the study, 45 had COVID-19 pneumonia and 18 had OVP. Cough, nasal congestion, sputum production and leukocytosis were more common in the OVP group while leukopenia was more common in the COVID-19 pneumonia (p<0.05). The distribution pattern of parenchymal lesions on chest CT was more likely to be predominantly peripheral and posterior in COVID-19 pneumonia compared to OVP. Bilateral involvement was also more frequent in COVID-19 group compared to OVP (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Distinguishing COVID-19 pneumonia from OVP with clinical and laboratory findings is difficult. Chest CT findings such as peripheral and posterior distribution of the parenchymal lesions and bilateral involvement may help to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from OVP.