A Method to Find out Perceptional Sound Composition of the Vowels in the Contemporary Turkey Turkish

  • Yusuf Kemal Kemaloğlu Gazi University Faculty of Medicine,
  • Güven Mengü Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University Literacy Faculty
  • Çağıl Gökdoğan Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Faculty of Medicine
  • Alper Kutalmış Türkcan Gazi University Faculty of Medicine

Abstract

Objective: The speech sounds are used in audiology and audio-verbal therapy. Perception of speech sounds is related with their acoustic properties and inner ear physiology. Therefore, a perceptional aspect of the acoustic content should not be overlooked. In this study, we evaluated linear and perceptional changes in the vowels’ sound content at and over the comfortable hearing level according to dBA-filter. Methods: Recordings of 8 vowels (<a, e, i, ı, o, ö, u, ü>) of the contemporary Turkey Turkish were filtered by a dBA-filter. Then linear frequency data (Hz) of both original and dBA-filtered files were analyzed for fundamental frequency (F0) and formants (f1 to f5) by Praat; subsequently, the data were transferred to the perceptional range (Critical Bark Bands, CBB). Results: Our data demonstrated that linear values of F0 and f4,5 did not reveal any relationship with vowels, while f1-3 presented phoneme-specific patterns. dBA-filtering did not affect linear data of f3,4 (<u> was the only exception) and f5. Linear f1values were increased by dBA-filter (particularly in < ı,u,ü>). f2 of <ı, u> presented major deviations. Vowels’ CBB-changes were evident in f1 (the only exception was <e>), and it was evident in only f2 of <ı, u>. Conclusion: It is apparent that speech sound content at and over the comfortable hearing level stimulates higher frequency bands than found in original voice. Only <e> presented no perceptional change while major changes were particularly seen in <ı, u>. Thus, we could pronounce that perceptional aspect by dBA-filter would provide us with a new perspective for understanding the results of speech tests.

Author Biographies

Yusuf Kemal Kemaloğlu, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine,
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery;MD,Prof
Güven Mengü, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University Literacy Faculty
Western languages and Literacy Department;Assoc. Prof
Çağıl Gökdoğan, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University Faculty of Medicine
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery;Assoc. Prof
Alper Kutalmış Türkcan, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery

References

Ling D. Foundations of spoken language for hearing-impaired children. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf. 1989.

Brandy WT. Speech audiometry. In: Katz J, editor. Handbook of Clinical Audiology, Fifth edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002, s.96-110.

Agung K. Bb., Purdy S. C., Kitamura C. The Ling Sound Test Revisited. The Australian and New Zeland Journal of Audiology 2005; 27 (1), 33-41.

Estabrooks W. Auditory-verbal therapy and practice. In: Estabrooks W, editor. Auditory-verbal therapy and practice. Washington, DC, USA: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the deaf and Hard Hearing, Inc.; 2006, s: 1-22.

Güven AG. Bebek ve Çocuklarda İşitmenin Davranım Testleriyle Değerlendirilmesi. In: Belgin E. Şahlı S., editörler. Temel Odyoloji. Ankara: Güneş Tıp Kitapevleri; 2014, s.231-244.

Belgin E. Konuşma Odyometresi. In: Belgin E, Şahlı S, editörler. Temel Odyoloji. Ankara: Güneş Tıp Kitapevleri; 2014, s.77-82.

Behrman A. Resonance and articulation. In: Speech and Voice Science. 1st ed. San Diego, CA: Plural Pub; 2007, s.215–351.

Abbas PJ, Miller CA. Physiology of the Auditory system. In: Cummings CW, Fredrikson JM, Harker LA, Krause CJ, Richardson MA, Schuller DE editörler. Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Cilt 4. New York: Mosby; 1998, s: 2831-2874.

Kemaloğlu YK. Sağırların ve sağırlığın nörobiyolojisi. In: Arık E, editör. Ellerle Konuşmak: Türk İşaret Dili Araştırmaları. 1st edition. İstanbul: Koç Ün. Yayınları; 2016. p.86-155. ISBN: 978-605-5250-83-6.

Özsoy AS. Türkçe’nin Yapısı –I Sesbilim. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları; 2004.

Coşkun V. Türkçenin Ses Bilgisi. İkinci Baskı. İstanbul: IQ Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık; 2010

Allen JB, Rabiner LRA. Unified approach to short-time Fourier analysis and synthesis. Proc. IEEE, 1977; 65, 1558-1564.

Kent RD, Read C. The acoustic analysis of speech. San Diego CA: Singular Publishing Group; 1992.

Selen N. Söyleyiş Sesbilimi, Akustik Sesbilim ve Türkiye Türkçesi, Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları; 1979.

İclâl E: Türkiye Türkçesinin Görevsel Sesbilimi, Engin Yayıncılık, Ankara,1989.

Kılıç MA. Türkiye Türkçesindeki ünlülerin sesbilgisel özellikleri. In: Özsoy AS, Akar D, Nakipoğlu Demiralp M, Erguvanlı Taylan EE, Aksu Koç A, editörler. Studies in Turkish linguistics. İstanbul; Boğaziçi Un. Press; 2003, 3-18.

Türk O, Şayli Ö, Özsoy AS, Arslan LM.Türkçede ünlülerin formant incelemesi. 18. Dilbilim Kurultayı, 20-21 Mayıs 2004, Ankara.

Malkoç E. Türkçe ünlü formant frekans değerleri ve bu değerlere dayalı ünlü dörtgeni. Dil Dergisi, 2009; 146: 71-85.

Yılmaz Davutoğlu A. Standart Türkçedeki ünlülerin akustik analizi ve fonetik altyapı. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Sahne Sanatları Anasanat Dalı Tiyatro Bölümü. Sanatta Yeterlilik Tezi, İstanbul. 2010.

Zwicker E, Fastl H. Information processing in the auditory system. In: Pyscho-acoustics: Facts and Models. New York: Springer; 1990, S. 20-55.

Zwicker E, Fastl H. Critical bands and excitation. In: Pyscho-acoustics: Facts and Models. New York: Springer; 1990, s.133-155.

Zwicker E, Fastl H. Just-Noticeable Sound Changes. In: Pyscho-acoustics: Facts and Models. New York: Springer; 1990, s.156-180.

Traunmüller H. Paralinguistic variation and invariance in the characteristic frequencies of vowels. Phonetica; 1988, 45, 1-29.

Traunmüller H. Analytical expressions for the tonotopic sensory scale. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America; 1990, 88, 97.

Syrdal AK, Gopal HS. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. Journal of Acoustical Society of America; 1986, 79, 1086-100.

Levey S, Fligor BJ, Ginocchi C, Kagimbi L. The effects of noise-induced hearing loss on children and young adults. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders; 2012, 39, 76-83.

Kemaloğlu YK, Tutar H. Gürültüye bağlı işitme kayıpları ve akustik travma. Turkiye Klinikleri J E.N.T.-Special Topics; 2013, 6(1), 44-54

Barber JR, Warner KA, Theobald DM. Anthropogenic noise exposure in protected natural areas: estimating the scale of ecological consequences. Landscape Ecology; 2011, 26, 1281–1295.

Westhorp S. Decibell Scales in Audiology In: Underwood A., editor, Audiology refreshers. BATOD, 2009. https://www.batod.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Audiology-Refreshers.pdf

Boersma P, Weenink D. Praat: doing phonetics by computer. [Bilgisayar programı]. İndirilme adresi: http://www.praat.org/, 2013.

Hirano M. Objective evaluation of the human voice: clinical aspects. Folia Phoniatr (Basel); 1989, 41(2-3):89-144.

Kılıç MA. Özelleştirilmiş Praat Programı ile Ses, Rezonans ve Konuşma Değerlendirmesi Kursu, 10. Ulusal Larengoloji Kongresi, 4-5 Mayıs 2018, Ankara.

Hillenbrand J, Getty LA, Clark MJ, Wheeler K. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. Journal of Acoustical Society of America; 1995, 97, 3099-3111.

Göksel A, Kerslake C. Phonologic units. In: Turkish: A Comphrensive grammar. London: Routladge; 2005, s.3-13.

Şayli Ö, Levent M, Arslan A, Özsoy S. Duration Properties of the Turkish Phonemes,11th International Conferance on Turkish Linguistics, Gazimağusa, KKTC, Ağustos 7-9 2002.

Şayli Ö, Arslan LM. Türkçe'deki seslerin süre özellikleri. Dilbilim Araştırmaları, Boğaziçi University Press; 2003. s. 15-26,

Arısoy E, Arslan LM, Demiralp MN, Ekenel HK, Kelepir M, Meral HM, et al. Duration of Turkish Vowels Revisited. 2004.

Zimmer K, Orgun O. Turkish. In: The handbook of International Phonetic Association. Chambridge: Chambridge University Press; 1999, s. 154-158.

Kılıç MA, Öğüt F. A high unrounded vowel in Turkish: is it a central or back vowel? Speech Communication; 2004, 43: 143–154.

Göksel A, Kerslake C. Phonologic units. In: Turkish: A Comphrensive grammar. London: Routladge; 2005, s.3-13.

Şayli Ö, Levent M, Arslan A, Özsoy S. Duration Properties of the Turkish Phonemes,11th International Conferance on Turkish Linguistics, Gazimağusa, KKTC, Ağustos 7-9 2002.

Şayli Ö, Arslan LM. Türkçe'deki seslerin süre özellikleri. Dilbilim Araştırmaları, Boğaziçi University Press; 2003. s. 15-26,

Arısoy E, Arslan LM, Demiralp MN, Ekenel HK, Kelepir M, Meral HM, et al. Duration of Turkish Vowels Revisited. 2004.

Published
2020-06-11
Section
Original Research