Snoring Sound and Sleep Analysis in an Obese Patient Group
AbstractObjectives: Snoring is the most common symptom of obstructive sleep apnea syndrom (OSAS). In this study, snoring percentage and severity were determined in a group of obese patients (with a BMI ⩾30 kg/m2) and the relationship between OSAS severity and snoring intensity were investigated. Methods: A total of 60 obese patients were retrospectively included in the study with a complete polysomnography (PSG) examination and snoring sound analysis which was performed simultaneously with the sleep study. The participants were divided into three groups according to AHI scores. The percentages of snoring sounds above 65 and 85 dB, determined during sleep were compared between groups. The demographic data, PSG record and snoring percentage of the patients were compared statistically. Results: The intensity of snoring sound and the percentages of snoring sound above 65 and 85 dB were found to be significantly related with the disease severity of OSAS in the obese patients (P<0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the significant relationship between OSAS severity and snoring sounds percentages over 65 and 85 Db in obese patients was demonstrated. These findings are promising for further studies and clinical use.
Patil SP, Schneider H, Schwartz AR, Smith PL Adult obstructive sleep apnea: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Chest 2007; 132: 325–37
Friedman O, Logan AG The price of obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea: hypertension and other ill effects. Am J Hypertens 2009; 22:474–83
Itay E. Gabbay & Peretz Lavie. Age- and gender-related characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath 2012; 16:453–60.
Hoffstein V, Mateika S, Anderson D. Snoring: is it in the ear of the beholder? Sleep 1994; 17: 522-6.
Wilson K, Stoohs RA, Mulrooney TF, Johnson LJ, Guilleminault C, Huang Z. The snoring spectrum. Acoustic assessment of snoring sound intensity in 1,139 individuals undergoing polysomnography. Chest 1999; 115: 762–70.
Perez-Padilla JR, Slawinski E, Difrancesco LM, Feige RR, Remmers JE, Whitelaw WA. Characteristics of the snoring noise in patients with and without occlusive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 635–44.
Saunders NC, Tassone P, Wood G, Norris A, Harries M, Kotecha B. Is acoustic analysis of snoring an alternative to sleep nasendoscopy? Clin Otolaryngol 2004; 29: 242–6.
Solà-Soler J, Jane R, Fiz JA, Morrera J. Automatic detection of snoring signals: validation with simple snorers and OSAS patients. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2000; 4: 3129–31.
Jane R, Fiz J.A, Solà-Soler J, Morera J. Automatic snoring signal analysis in sleep studies. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2003; 1: 366–9.
Arnardottir E S , Isleifsson B, Agustsson J S ,Sigurdsson GA, Sigurgunnarsdottir M.O.,Sıgurdarson G.T. et al. How to measure Snoring? A comparison of the microphone, cannula and piezoelectric sensor . J Sleep Res. 2016; 25: 158–68.
Punjabi NM. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2008; 5: 136-43.
Acar M, Yazıcı D , Muluk NB, Hancı D, Seren E, and Cingi C. Is There a Relationship Between Snoring Sound Intensity and Frequency and OSAS Severity? Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 2016; 125: 31 –6.
Menezes Duarte RL, Magalhães-da-Silveira FJ. Factors predictive of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred to a sleep laboratory for polysomnography. J Bras Pneumol. 2015;41:440-8.
Ursavas A¸ Goktas K¸ Sutcigil L, Ozgen F. Obstruktif Uyku Apnesi Sendromu Olan Hastalarda Obezite ve Kardiyovaskuler Hastalıkların Degerlendirilmesi. Toraks Dergisi 2004; 2: 79–83.
Hızlı O, Ozcan M, Unal A. Evaluation of Comorbidities in Patients with OSAS and Simple Snoring. Hindawi Publishing Corporation The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013; 4: 1-4.
Ben-Israel N, Tarasiuk A, Zigel Y. Obstructive Apnea Hypopnea Index Estimation by Analysis of Nocturnal Snoring Signals in Adults. SLEEP 2012; 35(9): 1299-1305.
Grunstein R. Snorenheit 911-searching for the ‘truth’ about snoring. Sleep Med Rev 2004; 8: 429-31.
Solà-Soler J, Jane R, Fiz JA, Morrera J. Pitch analysis in snoring signals from simple snorers and patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2002; 2: 1527-8.
Shin H, Choi B, Kim D, Cho J Robust sleep quality quantiﬁcation method for a personal handheld device. Telemed J E Health 2014; 20: 522–30.
Soo Kweon Koo, Soon Bok Kwon, Yang Jae Kim, JI Seung Moon, Young Jun Kim, Sung Hoon Jung Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds recorded with a smartphone according to obstruction site in OSAS patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017; 274:1735–40.
Fiz JA, Jané R, Solà-Soler J, Abad J, García MA, Morera J. Continuous Analysis and Monitoring of Snores and Their Relationship to the Apnea-Hypopnea Index. Laryngoscope 2010; 120: 8-12.
All opinions and reports within the articles that are published in the Gazi Medical Journal are the personal opinions of author(s). Gazi University, Editors and the publisher do not accept any responsibility for these articles. The journal is printed on acid-free paper.