The Effects of Memantine on Cognitive Function and Pain after Sevoflurane and Desflurane Anesthesia in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
AbstractObjective: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) refers to a wide range of alterations which effect memory, information processing and executive function after anesthesia and, the mechanism is still not properly defined. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which has a negative impact on cognitive function and leads to impairment of perception of pain by causing peripheral neuropathy. Sevoflurane and desflurane are anesthetic agents which are shown to cause POCD in many studies. Memantine is an agent which has a positive contribution on memory and learning; also known as neuroprotective and used in chronic pain treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate the effects of memantine, after sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia on cognitive dysfunction and pain levels in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In our study, we used 42, old (>12 months) Wistar Albino rats, 6 of them were grouped as control group (Group C). We have injected 55 mg/kg streptozotocin (i.p) in the other wistar rats and measured blood glucose and weight. Diabetic 36 rats were randomized into 6 groups (n=6) and groups were defined as Group DC, Group DM, Group DS, Group DD, Group DSM, Group DDM and control group Group C. During 30 days we added 20 mg/kg memantine into the drinking water of Group DM, Group DSM and Group DDM’s rats. We measured radial arm maze (RAM) and hot plate values of 30 days-followed up rats weekly. At the end of 30 days we gave anesthesia to sevoflurane and desflurane groups in 2 hours-long period and after that we measured 0. 1. and 2. hours RAM and hot plate values of this rats and other rats. Results: In the groups of which only variant was diabetes (until the study day Group C and Group DC, Group DS and Group DD, groups which weren’t given memantine), we compared the results and we conclude that diabetes has negative impact on cognitive function. Similarly, in the groups of which only variant was sevoflurane (Group DS and Group DC) or was desflurane (Group DD and Group DC) we compared the results and we conclude that our inhaler agents effect cognitive functions negatively. And yet, in the groups of which only variant was just inhaler agents (Group DS and Group DD; Group DSM and Group DDM), inhaler agents have similar effects on cognitive function and recovery. And finally, in the rat groups of which only variant was memantine (Group DC and Group DM, Group DSM and Group DS, Group DDM and Group DD), we observe that memantine fasten recovery time and has a positive effects on cognitive functions. In addition to that, we compared the hot plate measurements between 30 days followed-up diabetic rats which were not given memantine (Group DC, Group DS and Group DD) and diabetic rats which were given memantine (Group DM, Group DSM, Group DDM) and between the groups on the study day which had only variant memantine (Group DSM and Group DS; Group DDM and Group DD). The hot plate values show us memantine has an analgesic effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, administration of memantine in diabetic rats has positive effect on recovery, cognitive functions and pain levels after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane.
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